Archive for the 'List Alphabetically' Category

Gonorrhea

Thursday, February 3rd, 2011

Gonorrhea (also colloquially known as the clap[1]) is a common sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The usual symptoms in men are burning with urination and penile discharge. Women, on the other hand, are asymptomatic half the time or have vaginal discharge and pelvic pain. In both men and women if gonorrhea is left untreated, it may spread locally causing epididymitis or pelvic inflammatory disease or throughout the body, affecting joints and heart valves.

List of autism-related topics

Thursday, February 3rd, 2011

This is a list of autism-related topics.

Anxiety

Thursday, February 3rd, 2011

Anxiety is a psychological and physiological state characterized by somatic, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components.[2] The root meaning of the word anxiety is ‘to vex or trouble’; in either the absence or presence of psychological stress, anxiety can create feelings of fear, worry, uneasiness and dread.[3] Anxiety is considered to be a normal reaction to stress. It may help a person to deal with a difficult situation by prompting one to cope with it. When anxiety becomes excessive, it may fall under the classification of an anxiety disorder.[4] The intensity and reasoning behind anxiety determines whether it is considered a normal or abnormal reaction.[5]

Insomnia

Thursday, February 3rd, 2011

Insomnia is most often defined by an individual’s report of sleeping difficulties.[1] While the term is sometimes used in sleep literature to describe a disorder demonstrated by polysomnographic evidence of disturbed sleep, insomnia is often defined as a positive response to either of two questions: “Do you experience difficulty sleeping?” or “Do you have difficulty falling or staying asleep?”

Urinary incontinence

Saturday, January 22nd, 2011

Urinary incontinence (UI) is any involuntary leakage of urine. It is a common and distressing problem, which may have a profound impact on quality of life. Urinary incontinence almost always results from an underlying treatable medical condition but is under-reported to medical practitioners. There is also a related condition for defecation known as fecal incontinence.

Wheezing

Wednesday, January 5th, 2011

A wheeze is a continuous, coarse, whistling sound produced in the respiratory airways during breathing. For wheezes to occur, some part of the respiratory tree must be narrowed or obstructed, or airflow velocity within the respiratory tree must be heightened. Wheezing is commonly experienced by persons with a lung disease; the most common cause of recurrent wheezing is asthma attacks.

The differential diagnosis of wheezing is wide, and the cause of wheezing in a given patient is determined by considering the characteristics of the wheezes and the historical and clinical findings made by the examining physician.

Weight gain

Wednesday, January 5th, 2011

Weight gain is an increase in body weight. This can be either an increase in muscle mass, fat deposits, or excess fluids such as water.

Vomiting

Wednesday, January 5th, 2011

Vomiting, emesis and informally as throwing up, is the forceful expulsion of the contents of one’s stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose. Vomiting can occur due to a wide variety of conditions; it may present as a specific response to ailments like gastritis or poisoning, or as a non-specific sequela of disorders ranging from brain tumors and elevated intracranial pressure to overexposure to ionizing radiation. The feeling that one is about to vomit is called nausea, which usually precedes, but does not always lead to, vomiting. Antiemetics are sometimes necessary to suppress nausea and vomiting, and, in severe cases where dehydration develops, intravenous fluid may need to be administered to replace fluid volume.

Vomiting is different from regurgitation, although the two terms are often used interchangeably. Regurgitation is the return of undigested food back up the esophagus to the mouth, without the force and displeasure associated with vomiting. The causes of vomiting and regurgitation are generally different.

Vertigo

Wednesday, January 5th, 2011

Vertigo is a type of dizziness, where there is a feeling of motion when one is stationary. The symptoms are due to a dysfunction of the vestibular system in the inner ear. It is often associated with nausea and vomiting as well as difficulties standing or walking.

The most common causes are benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and vestibular migraine while less common causes include Ménière’s disease and vestibular neuritis. Excessive consumption of ethanol (alcoholic beverages) can also cause notorious symptoms of vertigo. (For more information see Short term effects of alcohol). Repetitive spinning, as in familiar childhood games, can induce short-lived vertigo by disrupting the inertia of the fluid in the vestibular system.

Vaginal discharge

Wednesday, January 5th, 2011

Vaginal discharge is a form of mucopurulent discharge from the vagina.

A small amount of discharge is normal. A large amount can be indicative of pelvic inflammatory disease, which is associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia. Along with discharge, the woman suffering from PID will also complain of lower abdominal tenderness, bilateral adnexal tenderness and cervical motion tenderness.

A sample of vaginal discharge can be observed by vaginal wet mount to find the cause of vaginitis and vulvitis.

Vaginal bleeding

Wednesday, January 5th, 2011

Vaginal bleeding refers to bleeding in females that is either a physiologic response during the non-conceptional menstrual cycle or caused by hormonal or organic problems of the reproductive system. Vaginal bleeding may occur at any age, but always needs investigation when encountered in female children or postmenopausal women. Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy may indicate a possible pregnancy complication that needs to be medically addressed.

Syncope

Wednesday, January 5th, 2011

Syncope, fainting, a sudden, usually temporary, loss of consciousness generally caused by insufficient oxygen in the brain either through cerebral hypoxia or through hypotension, but possibly for other reasons. A pre- or near-syncope is diagnosed if the individual can remember events during the loss of consciousness (i.e., reports remembering dizziness, blurred vision, and muscle weakness, and the fall previous to hitting his or her head and losing consciousness). As loss of consciousness is a symptom for a variety of conditions and syncope is difficult to rule out outside of a hospital, a thorough examination is required in order to determine the cause, including interviews with witnesses as well as evaluation with an electrocardiogram. If the individual remembers feeling dizzy and loss of vision, but not the fall, then it is considered a syncoptic episode. Typical symptoms progress through dizziness, clamminess of the skin, a dimming of vision or greyout, possibly tinnitus, complete loss of vision, weakness of limbs to physical collapse. These symptoms falling short of complete collapse, or a fall down, may be referred to as a syncoptic episode.

Seizure

Wednesday, January 5th, 2011

An epileptic seizure, Convulse, occasionally referred to as a fit, is defined as a transient symptom of “abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain”. The outward effect can be as dramatic as a wild thrashing movement (tonic-clonic seizure) or as mild as a brief loss of awareness. It can manifest as an alteration in mental state, tonic or clonic movements, convulsions, and various other psychic symptoms (such as déjà vu or jamais vu). Sometimes it is not accompanied by convulsions but a full body “slump”, where the person simply will lose control of their body and slump to the ground. The medical syndrome of recurrent, unprovoked seizures is termed epilepsy, but seizures can occur in people who do not have epilepsy.

Pruritus

Wednesday, January 5th, 2011

Pruritus, itch, is an unpleasant sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch. Itch has resisted many attempts to classify it as any one type of sensory experience. Modern science has shown that itch has many similarities to pain, and while both are unpleasant sensory experiences, their behavioral response patterns are different. Pain creates a withdrawal reflex while itch leads to a scratch reflex. Unmyelinated nerve fibers for itch and pain both originate in the skin; however, information for them is conveyed centrally in two distinct systems that both use the same peripheral nerve bundle and spinothalamic tract.

Pleural Effusion

Wednesday, January 5th, 2011

Pleural effusion is excess fluid that accumulates in the pleura, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs. Excessive amounts of such fluid can impair breathing by limiting the expansion of the lungs during respiration.

Oliguria

Wednesday, January 5th, 2011

Oliguria is the low output of urine. It is clinically classified as an output below 300-500ml/day. The decreased output of urine may be a sign of dehydration, renal failure, hypovolemic shock, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, or urinary obstruction/urinary retention.

It can be contrasted with anuria, which represents an absence of urine, clinically classified as below 50ml/day.

Nausea

Wednesday, January 5th, 2011

Nausea, motion sickness, or wamble, is a sensation of unease and discomfort in the upper stomach with an involuntary urge to vomit. An attack of nausea is known as a qualm. The most common cause is motion sickness, most often in automobiles, followed by gastroenteritis (a stomach infection) or food poisoning but nausea also frequently occurs as a medication side effect and in pregnancy. There are some medications, called antiemetics, that improve symptoms of nausea, including metoclopramide and ondansetron.

Melena

Wednesday, January 5th, 2011

In medicine, melena or melaena refers to the black, “tarry” feces that are associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage.[1] The black color is caused by oxidation of the iron in hemoglobin during its passage through the ileum and colon

Lymphadenopathy

Wednesday, January 5th, 2011

Lymphadenopathy is disease of the lymph nodes – swollen/enlarged lymph nodes. It could be due to infection, auto-immune disease, or malignancy. Inflammation of a lymph node is called lymphadenitis. In practice, the distinction between lymphadenopathy and lymphadenitis is rarely made. Inflammation of lymph channels is called lymphangitis.

Fecal incontinence

Wednesday, January 5th, 2011

Fecal incontinence (or faecal incontinence) is the loss of regular control of the bowels. Involuntary excretion and leaking are common occurrences for those affected. Subjects relating to defecation are often socially unacceptable, thus those affected may be beset by feelings of shame and humiliation. Some do not seek medical help and instead attempt to self-manage the problem. This can lead to social withdrawal and isolation, which can turn into cases of agoraphobia. Such effects may be reduced by undergoing prescribed treatment, taking prescribed medicine and making dietary changes.